by Miguel de Icaza

Mono has a pure C# implementation of the Windows.Forms stack which works on Mac, Linux and Windows. It emulates some of the core of the Win32 API to achieve this.

While Mono's Windows.Forms is not an actively developed UI stack, it is required by a number of third party libraries, some data types are consumed by other Mono libraries (part of the original design contract), so we have kept it around.

On Mac, Mono's Windows.Forms was built on top of Carbon, an old C-based API that was available on MacOS. This backend was written by Geoff Norton for Mono many years ago.

As Mono switched to 64 bits by default, this meant that Windows.Forms could not be used. We have a couple of options, try to upgrade the 32-bit Carbon code to 64-bit Carbon code or build a new backend on top of Cocoa (using Xamarin.Mac).

For years, I had assumed that Carbon on 64 was not really supported, but a recent trip to the console shows that Apple has added a 64-bit port. Either my memory is failing me (common at this age), or Apple at some point changed their mind. I spent all of 20 minutes trying to do an upgrade, but the header files and documentation for the APIs we rely on are just not available, so at best, I would be doing some guess work as to which APIs have been upgraded to 64 bits, and which APIs are available (rumors on Google searches indicate that while Carbon is 64 bits, not all APIs might be there).

I figured that I could try to build a Cocoa backend with Xamarin.Mac, so I sent this pull request to let me do this outside of the Mono tree on my copious spare time, so this weekend I did some work on the Cocoa Driver.

But this morning, on twitter, Filip Navarra noticed the above, and contacted me:

He has been kind enough to upload this Cocoa-based backend to GitHub.

Going Native

There are a couple of interesting things about this Windows.Forms backend for Cocoa.

The first one, is that it is using sysdrawing-coregraphics, a custom version of System.Drawing that we had originally developed for iOS users that implements the API in terms of CoreGraphics instead of using Cairo, FontConfig, FreeType and Pango.

The second one, is that some controls are backed by native AppKit controls, those that implement the IMacNativeControl interface. Among those you can find Button, ComboBox, ProgressBar, ScrollBar and the UpDownStepper.

I will now abandon my weekend hack, and instead get this code drop integrated as the 64-bit Cocoa backend.

Stay tuned!

Posted on 20 Feb 2018

Why I am excited about Unity in 2018

by Miguel de Icaza

While I had promised my friend Lucas that I would build a game in Unity for what seems like a decade, I still have not managed to build one.

Recently Aras shared his excitement for Unity in 2018. There is a ton on that blog post to unpack.

What I am personally excited about is that Unity now ships an up-to-date Mono in the core.

Jonathan Chambers and his team of amazing low-level VM hackers have been hard at work in upgrading Unity's VM and libraries to bring you the latest and greatest Mono runtime to Unity. We have had the privilege of assisting in this migration and providing them with technical support for this migration.

The work that the Unity team has done lays down the foundation for an ongoing update to their .NET capabilities, so future innovation on the platform can be quickly adopted, bringing new and more joyful capabilities to developers in the platform.

With this new runtime, Unity developers will be able to access and consume a large portion of third party .NET libraries, including all those shiny .NET Standard Libraries - the new universal way of sharing code in the .NET world.

C# 7

The Unity team has also provided very valuable guidance to the C# team which have directly influenced features in C# 7 like ref locals and returns - In our own tests using C# for an AR application, we doubled the speed of managed-code AR processing by using these new features.

When users use the new Mono support in Unity, they default to C# 6, as this is the version that Mono's C# compiler fully supports. One of the challenges is that Mono's C# compiler has not fully implemented support for C# 7, as Mono itself moved to Roslyn.

The team at Unity is now working with the Roslyn team to adopt the Roslyn C# compiler in Unity. Because Roslyn is a larger compiler, it is a slower compiler to startup, and Unity does many small incremental compilations. So the team is working towards adopting the server compilation mode of Roslyn. This runs the Roslyn C# compiler as a reusable service which can compile code very quickly, without having to pay the price for startup every time.

Visual Studio

If you install the Unity beta today, you will also see that on Mac, it now defaults to Visual Studio for Mac as its default editor.

JB evain leads our Unity support for Visual Studio and he has brought the magic of his Unity plugin to Visual Studio for Mac.

As Unity upgrades its Mono runtime, they also benefit from the extended debugger protocol support in Mono, which bring years of improvements to the debugging experience.

Posted on 20 Feb 2018